The idea of swift justice is often lost in death penalty cases. It usually takes several years from the time someone's convicted of a crime to his actual execution. Why? Because we need to make sure everything was done right.
In 2003, Teresa Lewis was convicted in a Virginia court for masterminding the brutal murders of her husband and stepson. A jury found that, with the lure of insurance money and other favors, she allowed two cohorts to enter her home and shoot her husband and stepson as they slept.
About 10 years later, Lewis was executed by lethal injection in late September 2010 after the US Supreme Court denied her request for a stay of execution.
Why So Long?
The appeals process in death penalty cases takes time to complete. Typically, a case may take between 6 to 10 years, but there are always exceptions. For instance, in Ohio, William Garner was put to death in July 2010. He was convicted in 1992 of murdering five children. In Texas prisoners have spent close to 25 years on death row before being executed.
It takes time because there are multiple steps in the appeals process in death penalty cases. And there are multiple steps because it's the ultimate punishment and there's no room for error. Each state has its own process or procedure for death penalty appeals, and there may be some variations, but in general they all have similar steps.
Generally, a defendant (she's the person convicted of a crime) sentenced to death has the right to an automatic appeal to the state's highest court (typically called a supreme court also). This means the court is required by law to look at the case. The defendant and the state (or prosecutor) file papers with the court and later argue their cases in open court. This may take a few months from the date of conviction. After hearing the arguments, the court makes a decision, perhaps up to two or more months later.
If the court reverses or throws-out the defendant's conviction or sentence, the case goes back to the trial court, and the whole process may start again. If the court lets the conviction and sentence stand, the defendant may ask the US Supreme Court to look at the case, like Lewis did. The Supreme Court isn't required to look at a case. Once it decides not to hear a case, the defendant's direct appeal is over.
The case isn't completely over, though. A defendant may ask for habeas corpus review of his case. Here a defendant usually claims his imprisonment is unlawful because he was denied a state constitutional right. A common claim is that he was denied the effective assistance of counsel. It's unclear if Lewis asked for habeas corpus review, but her attorney on appeal did argue that her trial court attorney made a serious mistake by not exploring her low-intelligence as a defense to the crime.
Again, the state supreme court makes a decision. If the conviction and sentence stand, the state appeals process is over. If not, the case goes back to trial where it may start all over again.
This whole process alone usually takes several years to complete.